A beautiful smile has a positive effect on people and creates a more appealing and confident first impression. With the advancement of technology in dentistry, the concept of smile design has become the focal point for aesthetic dentistry. While the smile design is created, oral and dental structures are assessed as a whole, and changes are made in the shape and alignment of the teeth, in line with the face profile of the patient, to create good harmony.
The final smile design is made taking into consideration many factors, such as the gender, age, facial features, muscle activities, current teeth and their alignments, occlusion, and the relationships among the teeth, lips and the gum;
Gender: teeth are twice as visible on women than men. Moreover, while women’s teeth are relatively round shaped, men’s teeth are more angular, and they have straighter lines.
Assessment of the relationship between the lip and teeth show that the women’s smile has a curvature structure while there is more of a straight alignment for men.
Age: tissue destruction starts as result of aging. Abrasions and colorizations occur on the teeth. Associated with the decrease of tonicity in muscles, the nasolabial cavity deepens. While the upper teeth become less visible due to the loosening of the upper lip and the loss of tooth support, lower teeth become more visible. The spaces between the teeth increase due to losses in the gum, and the aesthetic look of the patient is lost.
Face: teeth should be chosen in a way to harmonize with the patient’s face.
The Health Status and Structure of the Gum: Gums are one of the most important factors that surround the teeth and affect their physical appearance and health. Swelling and color changes on the gums which result from infections on the gum will negatively affect the patient’s appearance. Increased diastema, resulting from gingival recession, is another factor that distorts the appearance. In the case of the condition called, “gummy smiley,” where gums are visible more than desired, gums can be relocated by being lifted upwards. Unaesthetic appearance, resulting from gums being at different levels, can be restored by the levelling of the gums. Color changes, associated with the pigmentation of the gums, can be restored with laser treatment.
Structure of the Teeth: The size, length and shape of the teeth, and their relationships with the arcs are important factors in the assessment of aesthetics. Malformations of the teeth can be easily treated with minor interventions or lamina treatment depending on the severity of malformations.